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Geeth Kavinda

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Everything posted by Geeth Kavinda

  1. LCD Screen (Practical 15)

    LCD Screen An LCD is a liquid crystal display that is able to display text on its screen. In this project, you should see the words “hello,world!” displayed on the screen. The potentiometer is used to adjust the contrast of the display. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LCD Screen (1) Potentiometer (16) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_15_LCD Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  2. Motor (Practical 14)

    Motor Using a switching transistor, we will be able to control a DC motor. If everything is connected correctly, you should see the motor spinning. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) DC Motor (1) 330 Ω Resistor (1) Diode 1N4148 (1) NPN Transistor (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_14_Motor Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  3. Servo (Practcal 13)

    Servo In this project, you will be able to sweep a servo back and forth through its full range of motion. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) Servo (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_13_Servo Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  4. Tone Melody (Practical 12)

    Tone Melody The project will use a piezo buzzer/speaker to play a little melody. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) Piezo Buzzer/Speaker (2) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_12_ToneMelody Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  5. Temp. Sensor A temperature sensor measures ambient temperatures of the world around it. In this project, we will be displaying the temperature in the serial monitor of the Arduino IDE. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) Temperature Sensor – TMP36 (5) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_11_TempSensor Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  6. Photoresistor (Practical 10)

    Photoresistor A photoresistor changes the resistance a circuit gets based on the amount of light that hits the sensor. In this project, the brightness of the LED will increase and decrease based on the amount of light present. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 330 Ω Resistor (1) 10K Ω Resistor (1) Photoresistor (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_10_Photoresistor Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  7. RGB LED (Practical 9)

    RGB LED This project will be using an RGB LED to scroll through a variety of colors. RGB stands for Red, Green and Blue and this LED has the ability to create nearly unlimited color combinations. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) RGB LED (3) 330 Ω Resistor (5) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_09_RGBLED Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  8. Multiple LEDs (Practical 8)

    Multiple LEDs This project will use 8 pins on the Arduino board to blink 8 LEDs at the same time. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (8) LED 5mm (8) 330 Ω Resistor (9) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_08_MultipleLEDs Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  9. Bar Graph (Practical 7)

    Bar Graph Using a potentiometer, you can control a series of LEDs in a row. Turning the potentiometer knob will turn on or off more of the LEDs. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) Potentiometer – Rotary (10) LED 5mm (10) 220 Ω Resistor (11) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_07_BarGraph Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  10. Scrolling LED (Practical 6)

    Scrolling LED This project will blink 6 LEDs, one at a time, in a back and forth formation. This type of circuit was made famous by the show Knight Rider which featured a car with looping LEDs. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (6) LED 5mm (6) 220 Ω Resistor (7) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_06_Scrolling Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  11. Fade an LED (Practical 5)

    Fade an LED By using a PWM pin on the Arduino, you will be able to increase and decrease the intensity of brightness of an LED. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor (2) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Click Image To Enlarge Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_05_Fade Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  12. Potentiometer (practical 4)

    Potentiometer Using a potentiometer, you will be able to control the resistance of an LED. Turning the knob will increase and decrease the frequency the LED blinks. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor (1) Potentiometer (10k Trimpot) (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_04_Potentiometer Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  13. Push Button (practical 3)

    Push Button Using a push button switch, you will be able to turn on and off an LED. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor (1) 10K Ω Resistor (1) Push Button Switch (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Click Image To Enlarge Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_03_Pushbutton Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  14. Push Button (practical 3)

    Push Button Using a push button switch, you will be able to turn on and off an LED. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor (1) 10K Ω Resistor (1) Push Button Switch (6) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Click Image To Enlarge Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_03_Pushbutton Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  15. Blink an LED (Practical 2)

    Blink an LED This project is identical to project #1 except that we will be building it on a breadboard. Once complete, the LED should turn on for a second and then off for a second in a loop. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) Breadboard – Half Size (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor (2) Jumper Wires Project Diagram Click Image To Enlarge Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_02_Blink Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  16. Test Arduino The first project is one of the most basic and simple circuits you can create with Arduino. This project will test your Arduino by blinking an LED that is connected directly to the board. Parts Needed (1) Arduino Uno (1) USB A-to-B Cable (1) LED 5mm (1) 220 Ω Resistor Project Diagram Click Image To Enlarge Project Steps Twist a 220 Ω resistor to the long leg (+) of the LED. Push the short leg of the LED into the ground (GND) pin on the board. Push the resistor leg that’s connected to the LED into the #13 pin. Project Code Connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. Open project code – Circuit_01_TestArduino Select the board and serial port as outlined in earlier section. Click upload button to send sketch to the Arduino.
  17. The LCD Pinout

    The LCD Pinout It has 16 pins and the first one from left to right is the Ground pin. The second pin is the VCC which we connect the 5 volts pin on the Arduino Board. Next is the Vo pin on which we can attach a potentiometer for controlling the contrast of the display. Next, The RS pin or register select pin is used for selecting whether we will send commands or data to the LCD. For example if the RS pin is set on low state or zero volts, then we are sending commands to the LCD like: set the cursor to a specific location, clear the display, turn off the display and so on. And when RS pin is set on High state or 5 volts we are sending data or characters to the LCD. Next comes the R / W pin which selects the mode whether we will read or write to the LCD. Here the write mode is obvious and it is used for writing or sending commands and data to the LCD. The read mode is used by the LCD itself when executing the program which we don’t have a need to discuss about it in this tutorial. Next is the E pin which enables the writing to the registers, or the next 8 data pins from D0 to D7. So through this pins we are sending the 8 bits data when we are writing to the registers or for example if we want to see the latter uppercase A on the display we will send 0100 0001 to the registers according to the ASCII table. And the last two pins A and K, or anode and cathode are for the LED back light. After all we don’t have to worry much about how the LCD works, as the Liquid Crystal Library takes care for almost everything. From the Arduino’s official website you can find and see the functions of the library which enable easy use of the LCD. We can use the Library in 4 or 8 bit mode. In this tutorial we will use it in 4 bit mode, or we will just use 4 of the 8 data pins.
  18. Wikipedia says: A micro-controller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals The important part for us is that a micro-controller contains the processor (which all computers have) and memory, and some input/output pins that you can control. (often called GPIO - General Purpose Input Output Pins).
  19. H bridge එක කියන්නේ electronic circuit එකක්. මේ circuit එකක් පාවිච්චි කරලා කරන්නෙ අපිට අවශ්‍ය ආකාරයට moters contorl කිරීමයි. මෙම circuits robotics world එකේ බහුලව භාවිතා වෙනවා. මෙම circuit එක බවිත කරලා moter එකක් ඉදිරියට හා පසුපසට run කිරීමේ හැකියව තියනවා . H bridge එක switches 4කින් සමන්විත වෙනවා. මේ සඳහා transisters භාවිත කරනවා මේ ආකාරයට අපට නිවසේදීම H bridge එකක් සාදා ගන්න පුළුවන්. අවශ්‍ය නම් වෙළදපොලෙන් මෙම පරිපතය අඩන්ගු integrated circuits එකක් මිලදී ගන්නත් පුළුවන්
  20. What is a servo motor?

    What is a servo motor? Servo motors (or servos) are self-contained electric devices (see Figure 1 below) that rotate or push parts of a machine with great precision. Servos are found in many places: from toys to home electronics to cars and airplanes. If you have a radio-controlled model car, airplane, or helicopter, you are using at least a few servos. In a model car or aircraft, servos move levers back and forth to control steering or adjust wing surfaces. By rotating a shaft connected to the engine throttle, a servo regulates the speed of a fuel-powered car or aircraft. Servos also appear behind the scenes in devices we use every day. Electronic devices such as DVD and Blu-ray DiscTM players use servos to extend or retract the disc trays. In 21st-century automobiles, servos manage the car's speed: The gas pedal, similar to the volume control on a radio, sends an electrical signal that tells the car's computer how far down it is pressed. The car's computer calculates that information and other data from other sensors and sends a signal to the servo attached to the throttle to adjust the engine speed. Commercial aircraft use servos and a related hydraulic technology to push and pull just about everything in the plane. This assortment of servos is available in stores and by mail order. Servos range in price and application. And of course, robots might not exist without servos. You see servo-controlled robots in almost every movie (those complex animatronic puppets have dozens of servos), and you have probably seen a number of robotic animal toys for sale. Smaller laboratory robots also use servos to move their joints. Hobby servos come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different applications. You may want a large, powerful one for moving the arm of a big robot, or a tiny one to make a robot's eyebrows go up and down. Figure 2 below shows two sizes you can find in a hobby store— an inexpensive common size and a more expensive miniature one. Two common servo sizes. The standard servo on the left can range in power or speed to move something quickly, or it can accommodate a heavier load, such as steering a big radio-controlled monster truck or lifting the blade on a radio-controlled earth mover toy. The miniature servo is about the size of a U.S. quarter and is intended for applications where smallness is a critical factor but a lot of power is not.
  21. How does a servo motor work? The simplicity of a servo is among the features that make them so reliable. The heart of a servo is a small direct current (DC) motor, similar to what you might find in an inexpensive toy. These motors run on electricity from a battery and spin at high RPM (rotations per minute) but put out very low torque (a twisting force used to do work— you apply torque when you open a jar). An arrangement of gears takes the high speed of the motor and slows it down while at the same time increasing the torque. (Basic law of physics: work = force x distance.) A tiny electric motor does not have much torque, but it can spin really fast (small force, big distance). The gear design inside the servo case converts the output to a much slower rotation speed but with more torque (big force, little distance). The amount of actual work is the same, just more useful. Gears in an inexpensive servo motor are generally made of plastic to keep it lighter and less costly (see Figure 3 below). On a servo designed to provide more torque for heavier work, the gears are made of metal (see Figure 4 below) and are harder to damage. The gears in a typical standard-size servo are made of plastic and convert the fast, low-power motion of the motor (on the right) to the output shaft (on the left). In a high-power servo, the plastic gears are replaced by metal ones for strength. The motor is usually more powerful than in a low-cost servo and the overall output torque can be as much as 20 times higher than a cheaper plastic one. Better quality is more expensive, and high-output servos can cost two or three times as much as standard ones. With a small DC motor, you apply power from a battery, and the motor spins. Unlike a simple DC motor, however, a servo's spinning motor shaft is slowed way down with gears. A positional sensor on the final gear is connected to a small circuit board (see Figure 5 below). The sensor tells this circuit board how far the servo output shaft has rotated. The electronic input signal from the computer or the radio in a remote-controlled vehicle also feeds into that circuit board. The electronics on the circuit board decode the signals to determine how far the user wants the servo to rotate. It then compares the desired position to the actual position and decides which direction to rotate the shaft so it gets to the desired position. The circuit board and DC motor in a high-power servo. Did you notice how few parts are on the circuit board? Servos have evolved to a very efficient design over many years. Imagine you are playing catch with a friend on a sports field. You stand at one end and want your friend to go out for a long throw. You could keep calling out "farther, farther, farther" until she got as far away as you wanted. But if she went out farther than you can throw, you would have to call out "closer" until she got back to the right spot. If she were a simple motor in a robot arm and you were the microprocessor, you would have to spend some of your time watching what she did and giving her commands to move her back to the right spot (this is called a feedback loop). If she were a servo motor, you could just say "go out exactly 4.5 meters" and know that she would find the right spot. That is what makes servo motors so useful: once you tell them what you want done, they do the job without your help. This automatic seeking behavior of servo motors makes them perfect for many robotic applications.
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